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With the Swadeshi Movement gaining momentum by 1905, Indian artists attempted to revive the cultural identities suppressed by the British, rejecting the Romanticized style of the Company paintings and the mannered work of Raja Ravi Varma and his followers. Thus, was created what is known today as the Bengal School of Art, led by the reworked Asian styles (with an emphasis on Indian nationalism) of Abanindranath Tagore (1871—1951), who has been referred to as the father of Modern Indian art. Other artists of the Tagore family, such as Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941) and Gaganendranath Tagore (1867–1938) as well as new artists of the early 20th century such as Amrita Shergil (1913–1941) were responsible for introducing Avant-garde western styles into Indian Art. Other important artists like Jamini Roy and later S.H. Raza took inspiration from folk traditions and in 1944, K.C.S. Paniker founded the Progressive Painters’ Association (PPA) gave rise to the “Madras Movement” in Indian art.

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